Pioneering Greenfield Mining. Part 3: Pioneering Greenfield Mining: Embarking on Mineral Exploration

As we delve deeper into the stages of a greenfield mining project, we come to one of the most exciting and challenging parts of the process – the mineral exploration phase. The intrigue of exploration lies in the quest to find and identify potentially profitable mineral deposits, a task that combines scientific understanding, technological capability, and a touch of old-fashioned detective work.

Mineral exploration is a critical juncture in the mining lifecycle, linking the early phases of site identification and preliminary research to the later stages of feasibility studies and project development. This phase is dedicated to probing the earth, peeling back its layers, and revealing the hidden wealth beneath. It’s about more than just the search for minerals; it’s a comprehensive assessment to understand the quality and quantity of those minerals and determine if it’s economically viable to extract them.

As we step into this intriguing phase, we’ll uncover the sequence of activities involved in exploration, their significance, the technologies employed, and the strategies adopted to manage inherent risks. Through this journey, we hope to provide a clearer understanding of the complexities and challenges involved in pioneering greenfield mining and the rewards that await those who embark on it.
Join us as we embark on this journey into the depths of the earth, seeking the hidden treasure that could fuel our future.

What Does Mineral Exploration Involve?

In the realm of greenfield mining, mineral exploration can be compared to an intricate detective investigation. It requires a sequence of activities, each built on the knowledge gained from the previous steps and each propelling us further towards the end goal – identifying an economically viable mineral deposit. Let’s break down the core components of this process.

Prospecting: The exploration phase begins with prospecting, a boots-on-the-ground approach to find potential mineral deposits. Prospectors use their knowledge of geology, previous mining activities, and the visual examination of rocks and soils to identify areas of interest. Although technology has advanced, prospecting remains a vital first step in mineral exploration.

Geological Mapping: This process involves creating detailed maps of the area of interest, noting features such as rock types, structures, and alterations. This information provides valuable clues about the geology of the area and the potential location of mineral deposits. Today, geological mapping often involves remote sensing technologies, such as satellite imagery and aerial photography, alongside traditional fieldwork.

Geophysical Surveys: Geophysical surveys use principles of physics to provide indirect information about the subsurface geology. Methods include magnetic, gravity, electrical, seismic, and radiometric surveys. Each of these techniques gives unique insights into the physical properties of the rocks below the surface and helps identify anomalies that might signal the presence of mineralization.

Geochemical Analysis: Geochemical techniques analyze the chemical composition of rocks, soils, and water to identify anomalies that may indicate mineralization. Geochemical sampling can take many forms, including soil sampling, stream sediment sampling, rock chip sampling, and even analysis of tree leaves or termite mounds. This information can guide further exploration and help pinpoint targets for drilling.

Drilling: Once all the above steps have identified a promising target, drilling is the next course of action. Drilling provides the most reliable information about what lies beneath the surface. Core samples extracted during drilling are analyzed for mineral content, helping to determine the potential value of the mineral deposit. This data forms the basis for a resource estimate, which quantifies the volume and grade of the mineral deposit.
While the sequence of these activities generally follows the order presented here, it’s important to note that mineral exploration is an iterative process. The results of each step inform subsequent steps, but they can also lead to revisiting previous steps or adjusting the exploration strategy. Each stage of this phase requires technical expertise, strategic planning, and careful interpretation of data, reflecting the complex nature of mineral exploration. As we move forward, we’ll delve deeper into each of these activities and the role they play in the success of a greenfield mining project.

Prospecting and Geological Mapping

Prospecting and geological mapping are fundamental to the mineral exploration phase. These activities lay the foundation for further exploration and provide invaluable insights into the geology and potential mineralization of the area.

Prospecting: First-Hand Examination of the Terrain
Prospecting is the initial, exploratory phase where a prospector examines the terrain in a hands-on manner, looking for visible signs of mineralization. This step often involves the prospector walking the ground, observing rock outcrops, and collecting rock and soil samples.

Some of the observable signs that prospectors look for include color changes in rocks, patterns of vegetation growth (which can be affected by underlying minerals), and unusual land formations. They might also look for signs of past mining activity, as these areas may still hold potential for discovery of additional deposits.

The importance of prospecting cannot be overstated. Even with the advancements in remote sensing and geophysical technologies, there is no substitute for first-hand observation and understanding of the land.

Geological Mapping: Understanding the Structure
While prospecting involves an initial look at the site, geological mapping takes this a step further. It entails a systematic study of the area’s surface rock formations and structures, which are then represented on a map. Geological mapping can be seen as the “bridge” between preliminary research and more focused exploration work.

Geologists use this process to identify the types of rocks present, the sequence in which they were formed, their age, and any structural deformations such as folds, faults, and joints. All this information is crucial in understanding the geological history of an area and predicting where mineral deposits might be found.

Modern geological mapping combines traditional fieldwork with advanced technologies. Remote sensing data, aerial photography, and satellite imagery provide a broad-scale view of the geological setting, while field observations and sample analysis give more detailed information at the ground level. This combination allows for a comprehensive understanding of the site’s geology.

Together, prospecting and geological mapping provide the initial groundwork needed to understand a potential mining site’s structural formation. They offer the first crucial insights into whether a site could hold a significant mineral deposit, laying the foundation for the subsequent exploration steps. It is this hands-on and detailed understanding that sets the course for the entire greenfield mining project. As we move further into the exploration phase, we’ll see how these initial steps inform and shape the strategies that follow.

Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys: Tools for Unveiling Subsurface Secrets

Geophysical and geochemical surveys represent an advanced set of tools that are integral to successful mineral exploration. They provide detailed information about subsurface structures and the type and concentration of minerals, which aids in identifying areas that may harbor valuable mineral deposits.

Geophysical Surveys
Geophysical surveys involve measuring variations in physical properties of the earth’s subsurface. By studying these variations, geophysicists can infer the subsurface geology and identify areas of potential mineralization.

Common geophysical methods used in mineral exploration include:
1. Seismic Methods: These measure the propagation of seismic waves through the earth and are particularly useful for imaging deep subsurface structures.
2. Magnetic Surveys: These detect variations in the earth’s magnetic field caused by different rock types and are often used in the initial stage of exploration to identify areas of interest.
3. Gravity Surveys: These measure variations in the earth’s gravitational field which can be caused by changes in rock density, providing insights into the subsurface structure.
4. Electromagnetic Methods: These measure the earth’s natural or induced electromagnetic fields, providing information about the conductive properties of the subsurface.

Geochemical Surveys
Geochemical surveys involve the systematic collection and analysis of samples from the earth’s surface and subsurface to identify anomalous concentrations of elements. This information can then be used to identify potential mineral deposits.

Techniques involved in geochemical surveys include:
1. Soil Sampling: Collecting and analyzing soil samples to identify anomalies related to mineral deposits.
2. Rock Sampling: Analyzing rock samples, often collected from outcrops, to determine their mineral content.
3. Sediment Sampling: This involves collecting and analyzing sediment from streams or lakes. Because minerals can be transported by water, the presence of certain elements in sediment can indicate a mineral deposit upstream.
4. Vegetation and Biogeochemical Sampling: Certain plants can absorb and accumulate specific elements from the soil. Analyzing these plants can provide clues about the presence of mineral deposits in the area.

By employing these advanced geophysical and geochemical techniques, mineral exploration professionals can accurately identify subsurface structures and the type and concentration of minerals. This information guides them in determining the most promising areas for further exploration and drilling, thereby increasing the probability of a successful mining project.

Drilling: The Final Confirmation

Once prospecting, geological mapping, and geophysical and geochemical analysis indicate promising signs of mineralization, it’s time for the final and perhaps most crucial step in the mineral exploration process: drilling. Drilling provides the most direct and reliable method of confirming the presence and extent of mineralization. It involves extracting samples from beneath the earth’s surface, which can then be analyzed to provide concrete evidence of a mineral deposit.

Common Drilling Techniques and Their Uses
There are several common drilling techniques used in mineral exploration, each with its own benefits and suited to different situations.
1. Reverse Circulation (RC) Drilling: This technique is commonly used for initial exploration and ore body definition. RC drilling involves circulating drill cuttings to the surface for analysis. It’s a cost-effective method that provides real-time information about the geological strata.
2. Diamond Core Drilling: This is typically used for deeper exploration. As the name suggests, diamond core drilling uses a diamond encrusted drill bit to extract a solid core of rock. These cores provide a continuous record of the geology and are particularly useful for understanding the structure, mineralogy, and geochemistry of an ore body.
3. Percussion Drilling: Also known as ‘rotary air blast’ drilling, this method is commonly used in the early stages of exploration, particularly for hard rock environments. It’s a fast and cost-effective method but provides less detailed information than other techniques.
4. Auger Drilling: This is often used for unconsolidated material such as sand, silt, and clay. Auger drilling uses a rotating helical screw to bring material to the surface, and is especially useful for determining thickness and extent of overburden.

Choosing the right drilling method is dependent on many factors including the geology of the site, the depth and size of the target, the stage of exploration, and budget constraints. But regardless of the method used, the goal remains the same: to obtain a clear picture of what lies beneath the surface.
Drilling is a critical component in mineral exploration because it provides the final confirmation of the presence and extent of mineral deposits. It’s through this phase that explorers get a direct insight into the sub-surface geology and can make informed decisions about the potential economic viability of progressing the project to the mining phase. Despite its cost and complexity, drilling is an investment that can prove enormously valuable in unveiling a site’s true mining potential.

From Exploration Data to Resource Estimation

After the completion of the exploration activities, the data collected from various processes such as geological mapping, geophysical surveys, geochemical analyses, and drilling provides a wealth of information about the geological characteristics of the potential mine site. These findings are interpreted and integrated into a comprehensive geological model, which is a three-dimensional representation of the geological structures and mineral deposits beneath the surface.

The geological model includes key information about the geometry, volume, and depth of mineral deposits, as well as their distribution and grade. These details are crucial for understanding the physical characteristics of the deposit, such as its size, shape, depth, and mineral content.

Estimation of Mineral Resources
Mineral resources are estimated based on the geological model. This is a critical step in the exploration process as it helps determine the potential economic viability of a mining project. Resource estimation involves a complex process of statistical analysis known as geostatistics.
Geostatistics employs mathematical techniques to estimate the quantity and quality of the mineral deposit between data points. These techniques use the spatial relationships between samples (considering variables such as distance and direction) to predict the values in unsampled locations.

Typically, geostatistical modeling produces a range of estimates, with each estimate associated with a degree of confidence. This provides a probabilistic assessment of the mineral resource, which is a necessary input for making informed decisions about whether or not to proceed with a mining project. Remember, a ‘Resource’ is just that – an estimated volume of mineralization with a degree of geological confidence. It’s not until further studies, typically done during a Feasibility Study, and more detailed drilling is conducted that a ‘Reserve’ can be declared – the economically mineable part of a Resource.

The data interpretation and resource estimation are thus the culmination of the exploration phase, synthesizing all the findings into a coherent picture of the potential mine site’s prospects. It’s an intricate and crucial process, with its results determining whether the project advances to the mining phase.

Risk Mitigation in Exploration

Mineral exploration is a high-stakes venture marked with considerable uncertainties and inherent risks. The information collected during this phase has a direct impact on the potential success of a mining project, making it critical to identify and manage these risks effectively.

Phased Exploration
One of the key strategies to mitigate risk in exploration is adopting a phased approach. Phased exploration is a systematic and progressive way to evaluate a mineral property where each stage of exploration is dependent on the results of the previous phase. It helps in managing the uncertainties associated with mineral exploration by enabling decision-making based on the iterative interpretation of data.

Quality Control Measures
Quality control measures are vital to ensuring the reliability of the exploration data. These measures include strict protocols for sample collection, handling, and analysis. It’s important to regularly calibrate equipment, use standardized procedures for logging and testing, and ensure duplicate samples are analyzed by independent laboratories to verify results.

Use of Experienced Professionals
Involving experienced professionals in the exploration team is another effective risk mitigation strategy. Professionals with a solid understanding of geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mining engineering can bring valuable insights to the project, as they can better interpret the data and make informed decisions. Their expertise helps reduce the risk of errors, oversights, and misinterpretations.Additionally, they can provide guidance on compliance with industry regulations and best practices, reducing the risk of legal or regulatory complications.

In summary, successful risk mitigation in the exploration phase of a greenfield mining project involves a combination of phased exploration, rigorous quality control measures, and the use of experienced professionals. By carefully managing these risks, a company can increase the likelihood of identifying a viable mineral deposit and successfully transitioning to the development phase.

The Next Phase: Preparing for Feasibility Studies

Having navigated the rigors of mineral exploration, the greenfield mining project moves to a crucial juncture – the feasibility study stage. This stage is the critical transition point where initial exploration findings and interpretations are further investigated to determine whether the proposed mining project is technically and economically viable.

Feasibility studies are in-depth reports that thoroughly cover all operational and financial aspects of a proposed mining project. They include detailed examinations of the site’s geology, proposed mining methods, infrastructure needs, environmental impact, and potential social implications. Furthermore, these studies contain precise estimates of the project’s costs, production rates, and expected return on investment.

Feasibility studies essentially answer the pivotal question: “Is this mining project feasible and profitable?” They are the definitive check that can prevent the pursuit of projects with prohibitive risks or inadequate returns, thereby saving companies potentially significant losses.

It’s important to note that a positive feasibility study does not guarantee a successful mining operation. It is, however, a critical indicator that the project could be a successful venture, paving the way for obtaining financing and moving into the construction and mining phases.

In our next article, we will delve deeper into the intricacies of feasibility studies, explaining how they contribute to the careful decision-making needed to ensure the success of a greenfield mining project. Stay tuned to learn more about the science and economics behind turning a prospective site into a thriving mining operation.


This article has shed light on the essential step of mineral exploration in pioneering greenfield mining projects. We’ve journeyed through the process, starting with initial prospecting and geological mapping, and then delving into more intensive methods such as geophysical surveys, geochemical analysis, and drilling.

We’ve also taken a closer look at how data collected during exploration is carefully analyzed and interpreted to create a comprehensive geological model. This model subsequently informs the estimation of mineral resources, a vital process for deciding whether to progress with a mining project.

Given the inherent risks in the exploration phase, we highlighted the importance of adopting effective risk mitigation strategies. We’ve learned that managing these risks doesn’t just increase the chances of exploration success, but also sets the stage for a smoother transition into subsequent project phases.

In concluding this exploration journey, we’ve touched upon the upcoming phase: the feasibility studies. These are comprehensive and detailed investigations that delve into the operational, financial, environmental, and social aspects of a potential mining project, ultimately determining whether the project is indeed viable.

As we move to the next article in our series, we will delve deeper into these feasibility studies. We’ll unpack the components of these critical reports and explore how they shape the decisions that can make or break a greenfield mining project. Join us on this continuing journey to better understand the fascinating and complex world of greenfield mining.